Tag Archives: Secondary color

Colour Relationships

Colour Relationships

As discussed in the previous entry, colours, which sit across from each other on the painters colour wheel, are considered to be complementary and a result, they appear to the eye to balance each other in a satisfying way. Red is complementary to green, orange to blue and yellow to violet.

The hues vary in brightness from light, yellow to dark, violet. German poet and playwright J.W. von Goethe determined the generally accepted brightness values as

Yellow 9

Orange 8

Red 6

Green 6

Blue 4

Violet 3

(Freeman, 2005, p98)

The brightness values influence the ideal balance proportions of the three complementary pairs. For example, red and green each have a brightness level of 6, so are considered to be balanced at a ratio of 1:1. However, orange has a brightness level of 8, which is twice as bright as blue, thus the ratio is 1:2. This allows blue to occupy twice the area of orange to compensate for its lack of strength. Similarly, yellow is three times as bright as violet thus, violet should occupy three times more space than yellow.

Ideal proportion of how much colour occupies the frame

Red: green        1:1

Orange: blue     1:2

Yellow: violet     1:3

This exercise is in two parts. Part One asks for one photograph from each combination of primary and secondary colours, which is composed to closely match the rations listed above. (3 photographs)

 Part two asks for three of four photographs, which features colour combinations that appeal to me. They can be combinations of two colours or more. The objective is to show that there is no single ‘correctness’ to complementary colours. Look at the colour balance in these photographs and study its effect.

 Part One

Red: Green

Red and green have equal luminosity and combine harmoniously, when they are pure and exact, to proportions of 1:1. When viewed together as unadulterated hues, red and green exhibit optical vibration. Freeman (2005, p94) describes optical vibration occurs along the edge between two intense colours that contrast in hue but have similar levels of brightness. The effect is that the edge seems to fringe or vibrate, which can be irritating to look at but is also eye-catching and dynamic.

For this photograph I selected a robust-looking red flower, a warm colour set against a background of green foliage, a cool colour. This gives the impression that the red is advancing while the green recedes. I looked at this edges where the red and green meet to note if there was any evidence of optical vibration, but did not see any fringing. I think this may be because the saturation of the hues varied throughout the image.

red: green 1:1

red: green 1:1

red: green colour balance

red: green colour balance

I cropped this image slightly at the top of the frame and at the left hand side to make the colour proportions closer to 1:1.

Orange: Blue

As orange is as twice as bright as blue there is little optical vibration to be seen, making this combination of colours more comfortable to look at than red and green. They also have the strongest warm/cool contrast of temperature of the three primary and secondary colour combinations. Freeman (2005, p88) describes this contrast as a contrast of sensation as there is a sensory association between colour and temperature, humidity and time of the day.

Freeman (2005, p125) notes that reflective surfaces can pick up on the tones and colours of the environment. I took this photograph at Dubai creek side in the late afternoon. I think the warm glow of the low sun reflecting on the coloured glass has made the orange appear stronger. Although the colours in this shot are not pure I think harmony is still achieved through the warm/cool contrast.


orange 1: blue 2

orange 1: blue 2

orange 1 : blue 2

The colours in the image below are a lot stronger, particularly in the painted cart. A slight crop has been applied to make the proportions adhere more closely to the desired ratio of 1:2.


orange 1: blue 2

orange 1: blue 2

orange 1: blue 2

Yellow: Violet

This combination contrasts the brightest and darkest colours in the spectrum. Goethe placed a brightness value of 9 on yellow and a value of 3 on violet meaning that violet needs to occupy three times more space than yellow to be balanced. As noted in the course text, the rarity of violet in photographic subjects made this combination a challenge to find.

It took several outings for me to find a subject that would be a close(ish!) match to the colours. I spotted these shop facades while walking in Bur Dubai, an area of Dubai. On returning home I realised that the ‘violet’ in this shot was probably closer to a magenta/orchid hue. I also had to apply a heavy crop for the ratios to be close to 1:3.

yellow 1: violet 3

yellow 1: violet 3

yellow 1: violet 3

yellow 1: violet 3

Still, I think the brightness and darkness of the colours are evident enough to show contrast. The tight framing also made me consider what active framing and passive framing as discussed by Shore (2007). For some pictures the frame is relatively passive, it is simply where the pictures end. When viewing a picture with a passive frame, the viewer knows that the world continues beyond the edges of the frame, but is content with what is “inside”. For other pictures the frame is more active; the structure of the picture begins with the frame and works inward. The edges of the frame are activated, and we are very aware that the world continues beyond the boundary of the photograph. On consideration, I think the framing in this shot could be considered active.

The image below is another example of a yellow/violet combination at a ratio of around 1:3. The framing was better here which meant no cropping was required.

yellow 1: violet 3

yellow 1: violet 3

Screen Shot 2013-05-16 at 5.36.35 PM

yellow 1: violet 3

Part Two

Part two asks for three of four photographs, featuring colour combinations that appeal to me. I should look at the colour balance in these photographs and study its effect.

 Image One

I took this photograph on a visit to nearby gardens. I liked these colours together as they are all desaturated and this, to me, made the colours and plants appear delicate. The greens are paler than a pure green with hints of yellow. The pinks are very light, almost white in a few areas.

green, pink, brown

green, pink, brown

green, pink, brown

green, pink, brown

Freeman (2007, p123) notes that brown is, technically, a heavily desaturated red. He describes it as a classic broken colour, with earthy connotations. The brown here also contains greens and pinks, giving it a khaki-coloured look.

Both the pink and brown have originated from red. This colour wheel I found at http://creativecurio.com/2008/05/the-color-wheel-and-color-theory/ helps illustrate how adding white could create the pink and the brown by adding grey or black.

Screen Shot 2013-05-14 at 6.26.16 PM

Red is opposite green on the colour wheel. Freeman (2005, p96) notes that harmony with opposite colours lies in successive contrast. Successive contrast is where the eye reacts to a strong colour by creating it’s complementary, the after-image, after exposure. By supplying the opposite colour the eye creates a balance. Therefore there is a balance of complementary colours, albeit muted, in this image.

 Screen Shot 2013-05-16 at 6.37.19 PM

Image Two

This image shows a row of glass bottles featuring the painters’ primaries red, blue and yellow. The colours are not pure but still have high levels of saturation (with the exception of the light blue on the left of the frame). I noted the levels of saturation on Photoshop as follows R = 95%, B = 91%, Y = 75% and the LB = 27%.

yellow, red, blue

yellow, red, blue

As noted in Freeman (2005, p96) any colour combination that is symmetrical around the middle of the colour wheel has a potential blend that is neutral, therefore balanced. This can apply to groups of 2, 3 or 4 colours. The red, blue and yellow symmetry can be seen below.

yellow, red, blue

yellow, red, blue

red, yellow, blue balance

red, yellow, blue balance

Yet, as I discussed earlier each colour varies in brightness; red = 6, yellow = 9 and blue = 4. This would mean that the colour proportions that are conventionally considered to be harmonious would differ from those above as blue would occupy the most space, followed by red and then yellow with the least. I did consider cropping the right hand side of the frame to reduce the yellow area. However as Freeman (2005, p99) notes, adhering strictly to the colour harmony rules and principles can create a mechanical, predictable effect thus some imbalance can be good to add dynamism.

Image Three

I took this image in the glass house of a botanical garden. It is a good example of colour harmony through spatial contrast. When one colour is very small in the frame, the proportions become irrelevant as the small area of colour becomes a colour accent and the eye is drawn to it. Freeman (2005, p110) notes that it is paradoxical that sometimes a small colour accent gains more perceptual strength from its location. I placed the large pumpkin slightly off-centre to be moderately dramatic without being too extreme. I also placed it low in the frame to mirror the way it grows, at the end of a tendril, sitting on the ground. The two small orange flowers on the left hand side of the frame make the elements dynamically balanced.

orange colour accent

orange colour accent

In terms of colour balance, the green and orange combination does not fit with traditional colour harmony thinking, it would be considered imbalanced. However, I think it works well as the orange is light and not an orange/red, thus making it calming to look at rather than irritating.

orange colour accent

orange colour accent

orange, green imbalance

orange, green imbalance

Image Four

Image four is a close up of a stack of bowls on display at a local souk. It contains colours from every section of the colour wheel except yellow, which means the colour is not balanced. Freeman (2005, p112) notes that just as the concept of colour harmony is loaded with personal and cultural values so is it’s opposite, discord. Beyond optical and perceptual principles, discord is the idea that certain colour combinations clash, are not safe and do not work together. However, these assumptions are very much based on culture, opinion and fashion.

multi-coloured combination

multi-coloured combination

I would perhaps not choose to decorate my home, or wear an outfit encompassing all the colours in this photograph but I do think the assortment of bold colours attracts attention and in some way reflects the character of the souk I spotted them in, colourful, ornate and unusual.

multi-coloured combination

multi-coloured combination

multi-coloured imbalance

multi-coloured imbalance


 This exercise has taken me quite some time to research and compile as I quickly realised that colour harmony was a far larger concept than I had initially realised.

My main findings are that harmony can be achieved not only through combinations of complementary hues, but also through contrast of brightness, saturation, sensation and space. However my research asks for caution in adhering to these principles too rigidly, as this can produce predictable results. This suggests that while an awareness of colour relationships in photography can be used to good effect, some imbalance can also add dynamism and interest to an image.

M. Freeman (2005) Digital Photography Expert: Colour. Lewes: ILEX

Freeman, M. (2007) The Photographer’s Eye. Lewes: ILEX

Shore, S. (2007) The Nature of Photographs (2nd edition). London: Phaidon Press Limited


Primary and secondary colours

Primary and secondary colours

I learnt from the previous exercise that the strength of a colour can be altered by changing the exposure settings. This exercise explores this further using the primary and secondary colors.

On a colour wheel, based on the painters’ primaries: red, yellow and blue sit opposite their complementary colours. Red sits opposite green, yellow opposite violet and blue is across from orange. The secondary colours, green, yellow and violet, are created from combinations of the 2 primary colours which sit on either side of the secondary colour on the colour wheel.

Blue + Yellow = Green.

Red + Yellow = Orange.

Blue + Red = Violet

Screen Shot 2013-07-12 at 4.50.15 PM

I have taken my time over this exercise and taken many ‘colourful’ photographs on my visits to a marina, a market and a local park. I have opted to use this park photographs in this blog entry as these illustrate most of the colours in a natural way.

I set my camera to Manual mode as this setting allows me to use the in-camera exposure meter to gauge exposure. The ISO was set to 100 while the WB was set to sunny. All images are RAW format and are unprocessed.

Primary Colours


Freeman (2005, p32) describes red as being one of the most insistent and powerful colours. It immediately attracts attention and has many strong associations such as danger, heat and passion.

The red of this Canna Lily really stood out against the green and dark foliage in the background. Freeman notes that when red is seen against cooler colours, such as blue and green, it can be perceived to have a 3D effect and advance towards the viewer.

52mm, f/5.6, 1/250s, ISO 100

1. 52mm, f/5.6, 1/250s, ISO 100

At a focal length of 52mm the in-camera meter suggested a shutter speed of 1/250s while the aperture was wide open at f/5.6, to ensure a narrow depth of field. As the light was hitting one side of the lily it has produced interesting variations in the reds between the highlighted areas and the shadows.

52mm, f/5.6, 1/180s, ISO 100

2. 52mm, f/5.6, 1/180s, ISO 100

As I wanted to retain a shallow depth of field throughout these shots, I have adjusted the shutter speed to change the exposure, in this case making it 1/2 stop brighter. As a result the highlighted areas have increased and the surface reflections have diluted the colour. The background has also brightened making it more dominant and distracting.

52mm, f/5.6, 1/350s, ISO 100

3. 52mm, f/5.6, 1/350s, ISO 100

I adjusted the shutter speed to 1/350s to under-expose the image by 1/2 stop. Of the three exposures I think this produces the best outcome. The highlighted areas are softer and the details in the petals become more visible.

As the brightness of the red is so varied in each photograph it’s hard to say which exposure best matches the red from the colour wheel and with hindsight I should probably have chosen a subject that was evenly lit.

Instead, I have selected another red flower photograph from my catalogue. I shot this several weeks ago and at the time of shooting did not experiment with different exposure setting; therefore in order to complete this exercise I have adjusted the exposure in post- processing.

55mm, f/5.6, 1/1250s, ISO 100

55mm, f/5.6, 1/1250s, ISO 100

The red here is similar to the colour wheel but quite dark on some petals.

+1/2 stop

+1/2 stop

At 1/2 stop over exposed the red is very bright and appears slightly pink on the 2 right hand side petals.

-1/2 stop

-1/2 stop

Although, under-exposing by 1/2 stop has darken the stem, flower buds and background it has strengthened the red on the petals. I think this appears the closest match to the red on the colour wheel.


Yellow is the lightest and brightest of all colors. It doesn’t exist in a dark form and its brilliance is its most noticeable characteristic. It is often used to attract attention as in road signs or in the hundreds of bright yellow school buses that drive Dubai’s roads each day. Freeman (2005, p36) notes that expressively, yellow is vigorously and very sharp with associations with the sun, light and cheerfulness.

Using manual mode, the meter suggested a shutter speed of 1/250s with a focal length of 44mm and an aperture of f/5.3.

44mm, f/5.3, 1/250s, ISO 100
1. 44mm, f/5.3, 1/250s, ISO 100

Freeman (2004, p36) notes that there is very little latitude with yellow, it very quickly moves towards green in one direction and orange in the other. The colour patches he shows (p37) notes only 8 different shades of yellow, which is quite a narrow spectrum compared to the 20 colour patches shown for red. A range of yellow can be seen here with the yellow of the lily petals varying from yellow, to lemon and then towards a yellow-green, a colour cast from the surrounding leaves. In the center of the flower head the colour is a yellow-orange shade. . Overall, the yellows don’t seem bright enough to match the yellow on the colour wheel.

44mm, f/5.3, 1/180s, ISO 100

2. 44mm, f/5.3, 1/180s, ISO 100

At a 1/2 stop brighter the green and orange tones seem less obvious and the yellow’s brilliance has increased.

44mm, f/5.3, 1/350s, ISO 100

3. 44mm, f/5.3, 1/350s, ISO 100

At 1/2 a stop under-exposed the yellow appears much less bright.Out of interest, I looked at the HSB figures for this yellow in Photoshop and noted that the levels of brilliance ranged from 38-65% while in the 1/2 stop over exposed photograph they were much higher at 64-84%.

As it is brighter with less evidence of green, the 2nd photograph appears to be the closest match to the yellow on the colour wheel.


Freeman (2005, p40) describes blue as being a quiet and cool colour that suggests passivity and also a reflective mood. It has considerable latitude and has its greatest strength when deep.

While there may be blue skies above me and blue waters around me, I found it hard to find a subject close to the pure blue shown on the colour wheel, particularly in a natural source. I eventually selected a man-made source of blue after spotting this blue on a section of a children’s slide at the local park.

At a focal length of 40mm and an aperture of f/11 the in-camera meter suggested a shutter speed of 1/125s

40mm, f/11, 1/125s, ISO 100

40mm, f/11, 1/125s, ISO 100

Although this is a strong blue it is not as dark as the blue on the colour wheel.

40mm, f/11, 1/60s, ISO 100

40mm, f/11, 1/60s, ISO 100

Adjusting the shutter speed to exposed 1/2 stop brighter produces a much lighter blue. It has also altered the ‘elephant head’ section of the slide from yellow/orange to a much brighter yellow. The lighter tone shows the ‘wear and tear’ on the blue section which is less noticeable in the other 2 exposures.

40mm, f/11, 1/180s, ISO 100

40mm, f/11, 1/180s, ISO 100

Under-exposure by 1/2 a stop produces a blue which is the closest match to the blue on the colour wheel, although darkening it a little more would possibly be an even better match.

Secondary colors


Freeman (2005, p44) notes that as green is the main colour of nature, it has mostly positive associations and symbolism, such as growth and youth.

Green is the most visible of colours to the human eye in low light, despite it being of medium brightness. It is positioned between yellow and blue on the colour wheel and as result can take on many forms including yellow-green and turquoises. Pure green, however, is not common in nature as I found while looking for subjects for this exercise.

I decided to take this photograph of these 3 layers of large, fern-like leaves one behind the other.

The in-camera meter suggested a shutter speed of 1/250s when the aperture was f/5.3 and the focal length, 48mm.


1. 48mm, f/5.3, 1/250, ISO 100

I like this image as it illustrates a range of green tones.  There are small sections in the middle leaf of the layer that are close to the pure green of the colour wheel, however the majority of tones are either too light or too dark.


2. 48mm, f/5.3, 1/180s, ISO 100

Decreasing the shutter speed to 1/180s has lightened the greens throughout. Again, sections of the middle leaf are the closest match to pure green.


3. 48mm, f/5.3, 1/350, ISO 100

An increase of 1/2 stop shutter speed has darkened the greens, particularly in the foreground. However a close-up screen shot of the middle leaf notes that some of the greens here (running from top left, diagonally towards the bottom right) are close to the pure green on the colour wheel.Screen Shot 2013-12-12 at 4.19.59 PM


Violet has associations with being rich and sumptuous and can create a sense of mystery. It is linked to royalty, religion and superstition.

Freeman (2005, p48) notes that many people have difficult in distinguishing pure violet and states that this is magnified by the fact that colour monitors and ink are often unsuccessful with this colour.

Before beginning this chapter I too was somewhat confused as to the difference between violet and purple, having previously just used the label ‘purple’ to describe them both. However, I now seem to be gaining some appreciation as to their differences. I am beginning to look for violet and consider whether is it pale or dark? Is it more blue or red? The colour patches printed, and labelled, in Freeman (2005) have been a useful reference guide as I develop my colour discrimination skills.


For example, this shot initially seemed violet to me, but now I can clearly see that it is pink, possibly somewhere between a deep pink and a hot pink.


This flower appears (to me) like purple with lighter elements of a medium orchid colour.

As can be seen from the examples above, I did not find it easy to find a pure violet colour to photograph.

I considered these flowers (petunias, I think?), pictured below, to be the closest match. The in-camera meter recommended a shutter speed of 1/125s, for an aperture of f/5.6 and focal length of 55mm.

55mm, f/5.6, 1/125s, ISO 100

1. 55mm, f/5.6, 1/125s, ISO 100

At the recommended exposure the violet colour of the front petunia in this shot is a very close match to the violet of the colour wheel. The texture, shape, construction of the flower and the available light also make other shades visible too. The darker centre area of the flower is leaning towards blue-violet and a few spots around the edge of the petals appear slightly pink.

55mm, f/5.6, 1/90s, ISO 100

2. 55mm, f/5.6, 1/90s, ISO 100

At 1/2 stop over-exposed the colour of the front petunia is much lighter, more of a pale violet red. The flower in the background however is now closer to a match for the violet of the colour wheel.

55mm, f/5.6, 1/180s, ISO 100

3. 55mm, f/5.6, 1/180s, ISO 100

At 1/2 stop under-exposed the front petunia appears to be a dark orchid shade while the flower in the background now looks blue-violet.

I think overall, the first photograph is the closest match to pure violet.


According to Freeman (2005, p50), orange absorbs some of the qualities from its two source colours, red and yellow. It radiates the energy from red and the light from yellow and symbolically it is interchangeable with yellow from the sun and red for the heat. It has associations with festivity, celebration, heat and dryness.

I choose this orange Bougainvillea flower to illustrate orange.

52mm, f/5.6, 1/500s, ISO 100

1. 52mm, f/5.6, 1/500s, ISO 100

At the exposure recommended by my in-camera meter the orange is not a pure orange, but more of a dark red/orange colour. The petal and flower centre that are the point of focus, appear lighter as they are receiving direct sunlight. However they are still not light enough to be a good match to the orange on the colour wheel.

52mm, f/5.6, 1/350s, ISO 100

2. 52mm, f/5.6, 1/350s, ISO 100

At 1/2 stop over exposed the orange Bougainvillea flower has brightened and is a fairly good representation of pure orange.

According to http://www.rapidtables.com/web/color/RGB_Color.htm the RGB code for orange reads R-255, G-165, B-0. Using Photoshop, I decided to check the RGB code for the orange (at the focal point) in image 2 and was surprised to see it contained quite a lot of blue, reading R-231, G- 132, B- 61.

52mm, f/5.6, 1/750s, ISO 100

3. 52mm, f/5.6, 1/750s, ISO 100

1/2 of a stop under-exposed results in the flowers all having a distinct deep red colouring.

I was left wondering about the RGB levels of the orange in image 2. I decided to examine a few other ‘orange’ photographs that I had taken to see if any were a closer match to pure orange.

After several attempts, I noted that the orange in this photograph, taken 1/2 stop below the in-camera’s recommendation, contains no blue.

55mm, f/5.6, 1/350s, ISO 100

55mm, f/5.6, 1/350s, ISO 100

The RBG levels for this orange in the main cluster of flowers is R-225, G-101, B-0, which is closer to the 255, 165, 0 code of pure orange than the previous set of photographs. I think visually the orange in this image appears brighter with less evidence of red.


I have taken quite a long time over this exercise as I wanted to really understand and recognise the colours discussed. I do find now that I am looking at a subject’s colour and mentally analysing its qualities.

This exercise has forced me out of my usual shooting mode, aperture priority, into manual mode, which I have found, overall, far less scary than I had anticipated. This is something I plan to spend more time exploring.

It was harder to find pure colours in the natural world than I anticipated. I have realised that they are generally much brighter than I would have initially thought, however this has added to my understanding of ‘brightness or brilliance’.

On a practical level this exercise has shown me that when taking a series of photographs I tend to move the camera slightly between shots. As this can potentially affect focal point and exposure, I know I need to take my time and use visually markers to make the framing more constant.

I am also more aware of how much a colour can be altered by very slight adjustments, in this exercise 1/2 stop, in exposure. The results were varied. For example the blue was truest when under-exposed, the yellow when over-exposed and the violet at the recommended exposure settings. This tells me that each colour has its own properties, as does each subjects and these factors, teamed with particular lighting conditions means each shot benefits from an individual approach.

M. Freeman (2005) Digital Photography Expert: Colour. Lewes: ILEX

Open College of the Arts. Basic Colour Theory. Barnsley: Open College of the Arts